Henrik Gyllstad.

Henrik Gyllstad är universitetslektor och docent i engelsk språkvetenskap vid Språk- och Litteraturcentrum, Lunds Universitet. I sin doktorsavhandling från 2007 utvecklade han och validerade tester för kollokationskunskap, för avancerade inlärare av engelska. Han har sedan dess behållit detta intresse för språktestning och -bedömning, framförallt när det gäller mätning av storleken på individers och inlärargruppers engelska ordförråd.

Utöver detta har han breddat sin forskning till att också inkludera andraspråksinlärning och psykolingvistik. Denna forskning har fokuserat på lexikal representation och bearbetning, i studier av två- och flerspråkiga individers bearbetning av flerordsuttryck såsom kollokationer och idiom. För detta använder han olika metoder, till exempel ögonrörelsemätning och det som på engelska benämns primed lexical decision task.

Henriks forskning har publicerats i internationella tidskrifter som Applied Linguistics, Language Learning, Language Testing, Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism och Studies in Second Language Acquisition. För närvarande är han aktiv som forskare i projektet Flerspråkiga praktiker (MultiLingual Spaces), som undersöker språkpraktiker i engelskundervisning på högstadiet i Sverige.

Vocabulary learning under three different language conditions in six multilingual EAL secondary school classrooms in Sweden

Högre seminarium med Henrik Gyllstad.

Abstract

Research shows that there are both social and motivational benefits of drawing on students' full language repertoires (Cummins, 2017; Creese & Blackledge, 2010) in the process of learning additional languages. It is also the case that psycholinguistically-oriented studies have found that the L1 is activated during L2 lexical processing in both advanced and beginner bilingual students (Marion & Spivey, 2003; Sunderman & Kroll, 2006; Elston-Güttler & Williams, 2008; Carrol, Conklin & Gyllstad, 2016).

When it comes to vocabulary, experts unanimously recommend using L1 translation equivalents to establish initial form-meaning mappings for new L2 words (Nation, 2013; Schmitt & Schmitt, 2020; Webb & Nation, 2017), and learners report using L1 translations as a commonly adopted strategy in L2 vocabulary learning (Barcroft, 2009). Most research on the reliance of a previously acquired language when learning vocabulary in an additional one has focused on bilingual learners, i.e., a situation involving two languages (see e.g., Laufer & Shmueli, 1997; Lee & Macaro, 2013; Mishima, 1967; Prince, 1996).

In an intervention study, we compared the effects on vocabulary learning of three week-long teaching/learning conditions in multilingual EAL classrooms in Sweden. The three learning conditions were: English Only (EO); English and Swedish (E&S); English, Swedish and any Other language(s) (E&S&O) known by the learners. Learners aged 15-16 from six intact classes (N = 127) were instructed to follow the imposed condition that applied each week. Teaching materials for each condition comprised a text, including 12 carefully piloted English target words, vocabulary exercises, and vocabulary lists of the target words, in either EO, E&S, or E&S&O. We used a counter-balanced, repeated-measures design, with Pretest (36 words), 3 x treatment, Immediate Posttests (3 x 12 words), and Delayed Posttest (DPT) (36 words) 8-10 weeks after the treatments. The test formats targeted meaning recall (expressed in any of the participants' languages or even drawings).

Mixed Effects Modeling based on gain scores showed that learners in all classes improved significantly in the Immediate Posttests compared to the Pretests, but that gain scores on the Delayed Posttests were low. In the Immediate tests, for 3 out of 6 classes no differences were found between the 3 conditions, but in the remaining 3 classes learners scored significantly lower in the EO condition, with conditions involving learners' L1(s) providing better results. In the talk, results pertaining also to factors like proficiency, learners’ preferred learning approach in relation to their actual performance, chosen answer modes in the tests, and outcomes based on language backgrounds will be presented and discussed. The question of external validity and generalizability will also be addressed.

The study presented is part of the project MultiLingual Spaces, with the following co-researchers: Marie Källkvist (PI) (Lund University & Linnaeus University), Erica Sandlund (Karlstad University), and Pia Sundqvist (Oslo University & Karlstad University).

References
Barcroft, J. (2009). Strategies and performance in intentional L2 vocabulary learning. Language Awareness, 18(1), 74-89.

Carrol, G., Conklin, K., & Gyllstad, H. (2016). Found in translation: The influence of the L1 on the reading of idioms in a L2. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38(3), 403-443.

Creese, A., & Blackledge, A. (2010). Translanguaging in the bilingual classroom: A pedagogy for learning and teaching? The Modern Language Journal, 94(1), 103-115.

Cummins, J. (2017). Flerspråkiga elever: Effektiv undervisning i en utmanande tid. Natur och Kultur.

Elston-Güttler, K. E., & Williams, J. N. (2008). First language polysemy affects second language meaning interpretation: evidence for activation of first language concepts during second language reading. Second Language Research, 24(2), 167–187.

Laufer, B. & Shmueli, K. (1997). Memorizing new words: Does teaching have anything to do with it? RELC Journal, 28(1), 89-108.

Lee, J. H., & Macaro, E. (2013). Investigating Age in the Use of L1 or English-only Instruction: Vocabulary Acquisition by Korean EFL Learners. The Modern Language Journal, 97(4), 887-901

Marian, V., & Spivey, M. (2003). Bilingual and monolingual processing of competing lexical items. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24(2), 173-193.

Mishima, T. (1967). An experiment comparing five modalities of conveying meaning for the teaching of foreign language vocabulary. Dissertation Abstracts, 27, 3030-31A.

Nation, P. (2013). Learning vocabulary in another language. Second edition. Cambridge University Press.

Prince, P. (1996). Second language vocabulary learning: The role of context versus translations as a function of proficiency. The Modern Language Journal, 80(4), 478-493.

Schmitt, N., & Schmitt, D. (2020). Vocabulary in language teaching. Second edition. Cambridge University Press.

Sunderman, G., & Kroll, J. F. (2006). First language activation during second language lexical processing: An investigation of lexical form, meaning, and grammatical class. Studies in second language acquisition, 28(3), 387-422.

Webb, S., & Nation, P. (2017). How vocabulary is learned. Oxford University Press.